Animals

Challenge: Granivorous species can be detrimental to seeding efforts by consuming large amounts of freshly applied seed. Small mammals can also damage seedlings and saplings by direct herbivory and soil damage through burrowing.

Strategy: Seeds applied with binding or covering materials such as mulch or binders can limit access to seeds by seed eating animals. Installing chicken wire fencing or protecting saplings with plastic collard like Tubex Tree Shelters or biodegradable guards (e.g. https://pacforest.com/Category/Rigid-Seedling-Protection-Tubes or https://www.ecogard.co.nz/products/eco-gard-pack-of-25) can limit access of herbivores restoration materials in the field. Installing (when appropriate) barn owl boxes or raptor perches in and around restoration sites (approximately 1 per acre) can reduce small mammal populations. Seeding less expensive but granivore-favored seed close to the target restoration seeding area has also shown utility in enhancing seedling establishment [1]. More labor intensive but perhaps more effective controls can include the use of zinc phosphide bait and mousetraps. Finally, in areas where herbivores are known to congregate, choose plants that are resistant to herbivory.