Hydroseeding, which involves spraying a mixture of seed, mulch, and fertilizer in a water-based slurry to the soil surface, can also be used to prepare a seedbed . Hydroseeding is particularly useful for erosion control and minimizing seed loss to seed eating animals, wind, and desiccation stress. This method is less labor intensive than hand seeding, can be useful for seeding areas inaccessible to drills, and can quickly cover large areas (approximately 1-2 hours per acre, depending on tank size; Steinfeld et al. 2008). However, this approach can be subject to high failure rates in plant establishment, is often costly (approximately $2,000 - $4,000 per acre), and requires access to machinery. Hydroseeding can be improved by scarifying the soil surface and hydromulching .