Seed balls (also referred to as ‘seed pellets’ or ‘seed bombs’) are structures typically made of clay, compost, water and seed (but can include a huge range of ingredients including soil, rock dust, cat litter, coffee grounds, cayenne pepper, sand, worm castings and mycorrhizal fungi). These structures can ameliorate conditions that contribute to failure in arid land restoration . Seed balls also serve to enhance seed to soil contact and reduce seed redistribution by wind. In theory, seeds are protected in the structure until adequate rainfall removes the surrounding clay and a small pocket of nutrients from the compost component of the seed ball nourishes the seedlings as they emerge. Seed balls are cheap and easy to make and can enhance germination of seeded species .