Grazing

Historically, managers suggest protecting restoration areas from grazing for at least one year. Some studies show, however, that exposing a seeded site to the presence of animals (specifically, sheep), can enhance seedling emergence [1]. This is because trampling can increase seed to soil contact and enhance heterogeneity of the soil surface.

Directly after seeding, allow livestock to enter the area for high intensity grazing (many animals in a short period of time). In addition to enhancing seed to soil contact, excretions of the animals will enhance soil fertility.